What is the Process of a DNA Test?

When you need to undergo a DNA test for any reason, you might be curious how the process works. DNA testing is a science, and the method of doing the test requires a lab and specialized machinery. Take a look how the process works to understand more about DNA testing.

Collect DNA sample. This can be any bodily fluid or hair from a person, as they all carry DNA. The most common sample is a cheek swab, as it’s the least invasive option.

Lyse the cells. This is a process that breaks down the membranes of the cells, and can be done by adding an enzyme to a solution containing the DNA sample.

Separate the DNA. There are multiple ways to do this, but the most common is a process called electrophoresis. This method uses an electric field to sort molecules in a sample. The unique molecular structure of DNA forces it away from the rest of the sample.

Copy the DNA samples for testing. A process called PCR can be used to generate copies of the DNA, which can then be tested for genetic markers.

Test the DNA. This process involves finding the genetic markers in the DNA that identify relationship. There are thousands of known genetic markers, but a relationship DNA test reports on 16 to 21 specific genetic markers that prove genetic relationship.

Match markers against other samples. These markers can be matched against an unknown DNA sample to show if the unknown is the same person as the DNA donor. In the case of a paternity DNA test, the potential father must match half of the child’s genetic markers—the other half come from the mother.


If you have any other questions about DNA testing, or need a DNA test for any reason, contact Endeavor DNA today. We provide accurate results and discreet service.

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